Abstract: The value of real estate collateral typically is fundamental to the value of many loan portfolios. So it’s important to stay on top of real estate value fluctuations and obtain periodic appraisals according to the rules. This article points out that lenders should understand interagency guidelines, maintain program independence, use selection criteria for valuators and become familiar with appraisal standards. The article suggests that, to ensure real estate collateral is sound, it’s important to set up an effective, efficient and comprehensive review program.
Staying ahead of the game
Review your real estate valuation program
The value of real estate collateral is likely fundamental to the value of your loan portfolios. So it’s important to stay on top of real estate value fluctuations and obtain periodic appraisals according to the rules. You also need to understand interagency guidelines, maintain program independence, use selection criteria for valuators and become familiar with appraisal standards. Doing all this can keep you ahead of the game.
What are the interagency guidelines?
Start your evaluation by revisiting the kingpin of any valuation program, the Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines. They apply to appraisals and evaluations for all real estate–related financial transactions originated or purchased by regulated institutions, whether for the institutions’ own portfolios or as assets held for sale. The guidelines cover residential and commercial mortgages, capital markets groups, and asset securitization and sales units.
Most transactions valued at more than $250,000 require appraisals, though certain transactions — listed in Appendix A to the guidelines — are exempt. In addition to the exclusion for transactions at or below the $250,000 threshold, exceptions include:
• Business loans secured by real estate for less than $500,000 (the $500,000 limit for commercial loans took effect on April 9, 2018) whose source of repayment is from other than the rental income or sale of the real estate,
• Extensions of existing credits,
• Loans not secured by real estate, and
• Transactions guaranteed or insured by the U.S. government.
The exemptions are limited, so be sure to scrutinize transactions to determine whether risk factors or other circumstances make an appraisal necessary. Some exempt transactions require a less formal evaluation.
Is your program independent?
Your institution is responsible for developing an effective collateral valuation program. First, consider the independence of your program, which should be isolated from influence by your loan production staff. Individuals who order, review and accept appraisals or evaluations should have reporting lines independent of the production staff as well. Appraisers and individuals performing evaluations (“evaluators”) need to be independent of loan production and loan collection and obviously should have no interest in the transaction or property.
Special rules apply to smaller institutions that lack the staff needed to separate their collateral valuation programs from the production process. For mortgages and other loans secured by a principal dwelling, review amendments to Regulation Z that impose strict independence and conflict-of-interest requirements on appraisers.
What are the selection criteria for valuators?
Next consider how you select valuators. Set criteria for selecting, evaluating and monitoring appraisers and evaluators, and for documenting their credentials. Among other things, ensure that those selected are qualified, competent and independent and that appraisers hold appropriate state certifications or licenses.
Select and engage appraisers directly (though appraisals prepared for other institutions may be used if specific rigorous requirements are met). Approved appraiser lists are permitted, provided you establish safeguards to ensure that list members continue to be qualified, competent and independent.
What are the minimum appraisal standards?
Then make sure that your appraisals conform to the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice, although safe and sound banking practices may call for stricter standards. Written reports should provide sufficient detail — according to the transaction’s risk, size and complexity — to support the credit decision.
Appraisers should analyze appropriate deductions and discounts (detailed in Appendix C of the guidelines) for proposed construction or renovation, partially leased buildings, non-market lease terms and tract developments with unsold units.
What are some other factors?
In addition to these touchstones, your program should facilitate credit decisions by ensuring the timely receipt and review of appraisal or evaluation reports. It also should provide criteria for determining whether existing appraisals or evaluations may be used to support subsequent transactions.
Moreover, your valuation program should have in place internal controls that promote compliance. And it should contain standards for monitoring collateral values and for handling transactions not otherwise covered by appraisal regulations.
If you outsource valuation functions, your institution remains responsible for all appraisals and evaluations. The interagency guidelines discuss the resources, expertise, controls and due diligence procedures your institution needs to identify, monitor and manage risks associated with these outsourcing arrangements.
Is it working?
The only way to ensure that your real estate collateral is sound is to set up an effective, efficient and comprehensive program. You’ll also need to review it regularly and adjust as needed to keep it on the right track.